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[2015两会政府报告] 2015年两会政府工作报告

时间:2021-10-13 21:53:50 来源:网友投稿


  Premier of the State Council


  Fellow Deputies,


  On behalf of the State Council, I will now report to you on the work of the government for your deliberation and approval, and I invite comments on my report from the members of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).

  一、 2014 年工作回顾

  I. A Review of the Work in 2014


  Over the past year, the international and domestic environments faced by China in its development have been complicated and challenging. The road to global economic recovery has been rough, with many ups and downs, and the performance of the major economies has been divergent Downward pressure on China's economy has continued to mount, and we have faced an array of interwoven difficulties and challenges.

  However, under the firm leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) headed by General Secretary Xi Jinping, all our people have worked together as one, surmounted difficulties, and accomplished the year's main targets for economic and social development, thereby ensuring that we got off to a good start in comprehensively deepening reform, embarked on a new journey to fully advance the law-based governance of China, and again made solid progress in our endeavor to finish building a moderately prosperous society in all respects.


  During the past year, China has, overall, achieved a stable performance while at the same time securing progress in its economic and social development. The main indication of this stable performance is that the economy operated within an appropriate range.

  增速稳,国内生产总值达到 63. 6 万亿元,比上年增长 7.4%,在世界主要经济体中名列前茅。就业稳,城镇新增就业1322 万人,高于上年。价格稳,居民消费价格上涨 2%。“进”的总体特征是,发展的协调性和可持续性增强。经济结构有新的优化,粮食产量达到1. 21 万亿斤,消费对经济增长的贡献率上升3 个百分点,达到51. 2%,服务业增加值比重由 46.9%提高到 48.2% ,新产业、新业态、新商业模式不断涌现。中西部地区经济增速快于东部地区。发展质量有新的提升,一般公共预算收入增长 8.6%,研究与试验发展经费支出与国内生产总值之比超过 2%,能耗强度下降 4.8%,是近年来最大降幅。人民生活有新的改善,全国居民人均可支配收入实际增长 8%,快于经济增长;农村居民人均可支配收入实际增长 9.2%,快于城镇居民收入增长;农村贫困人口减少 1232万人;6600 多万农村人口饮水安全问题得到解决;出境旅游超过 1 亿人次。改革开放有新的突破,全面深化改革系列重点任务启动实施,本届政府减少 1/3 行政审批事项的目标提前实现。

  ■ The growth rate was steady China's GDP reached 63.6 trillion yuan, an increase of 7.4% over the previous year, making China one of the fastest-growing major economies in the world.

  ■ Employment remained robust, with 13.22 million new urban jobs created, which is higher than the figure for the previous year.

  ■ Prices were stable, with the CPI rising by 2%.

  ■ The underlying feature demonstrating progress is that our development is becoming better coordinated and more sustainable.

  ■ The economic structure was upgraded. Grain output reached 605 million metric tons; the contribution of consumption toward economic growth rose by three percentage points to 51.2%; the value added of the service sector increased from 46.9% to 48.2% of the GDP; and there was a constant stream of new industries, new types of business, and new business models. The central and western regions grew faster in economic terms than the eastern region.

  ■ The quality of development was raised. Revenue in the general public budgets grew by 8.6%. Research and development spending accounted for more than 2% of the GDP. Energy intensity was cut by 4.8%, the biggest reduction made in recent years.

  ■ People's lives were improved. Per capita disposable personal income increased by 8% in real terms nationwide, growing faster than the economy, and the per capita disposable income of rural residents grew by 9.2%), outpacing that of those living in urban areas. In rural areas, the number of people living in poverty was reduced by 12.32 million, and over 66 million more people gained access to safe drinking water. The number of outbound trips made by Chinese tourists exceeded 100 million.

  ■ New breakthroughs were made in reform and opening up. A series of key tasks for comprehensively deepening reform were launched, and the goal of the current administration to cut the number of items that require government review by one third was achieved ahead of schedule.


  These achievements have not come easily. They have been made possible by the painstaking efforts and hard work of all our people, and they have strengthened our resolve and confidence to keep pushing ahead.


  Over the past year, we have faced more difficulties and challenges than anticipated. We have risen to the challenge and accomplished the following in our work.


  First, on the basis of range-based macro regulation, m exercised targeted regulation to keep the economy growing steadily.

  In the face of mounting downward economic pressure, we maintained strategic focus and kept our macroeconomic policy unchanged. Instead of using short-term stimulus measures, we continued to develop new ideas and methods for macro regulation. We exercised targeted regulation, stimulated market activity, shored up our weak spots, and boosted the real economy. With a keen understanding of the appropriate range within which the economy needs to be operating, we adopted targeted steps to address the serious issues and structural problems hindering development. We promoted reform to gain impetus for development, made structural adjustments to produce support for development, and improved living standards to increase the potential for development. We both expanded market demand and increased effective supply, working to ensure that structural adjustments were made without compromising the growth rate.

  有效实施积极的财政政策和稳健的货币政策。实行定向减税和普遍性降费,拓宽小微企业税收优惠政策范围,扩大"营改增"试点。加快财政支出进度,积极盘活存量资金。灵活运用货币政策工具,采取定向降准、定向再贷款、非对称降息等措施,加大对经济社会发展薄弱环节的支持力度,小微企业、"三农"贷款增速比各项贷款平均增速分别高 4.2 和 O. 7 个百分点。同时,完善金融监管,坚决守住不发生区域性系统性风险的底线。

  We have been effectively implementing proactive fiscal policy and prudent monetary policy. We increased targeted tax reductions, reduced fees across the board, extended the coverage of tax relief policies to benefit more small and micro businesses, and expanded the trials to replace business tax with VAT to cover more industries. We sped up the process of making budgetary funds available for fiscal expenditures and put surplus budgetary funds to good use. By flexibly utilizing monetary policy instruments, making targeted cuts to required reserve ratios, carrying out targeted re-lending, and making asymmetric interest rate cuts, we stepped up support for weaker areas in economic and social development. Increases in loans made to small and micro businesses, and loans for agriculture, rural areas, and farmers, outdid the average increase in loans overall by 4.2 and 0.7 percentage points respectively. At the same time, regulation of the financial sector was improved and regional and systemic risks were forestalled.


  Second we deepened reform and opening up and invigorated economic and social development.

  To address obstructions holding back development caused by certain systems and mechanisms, we comprehensively deepened reform, invigorating the market to offset downward economic pressure. We tackled many tough issues and carried out structural reforms in the economic, political, cultural, societal, and ecological sectors.

  扎实推动重点改革。制定并实施深化财税体制改革总体方案,预算管理制度和税制改革取得重要进展,专项转移支付项目比上年减少 1/3 以上,一般性转移支付比重增加,地方政府性债务管理得到加强。存款利率和汇率浮动区间扩大,民营银行试点迈出新步伐,“沪港通”试点启动,外汇储备、保险资金运用范围拓展。能源、交通、环保、通信等领域价格改革加快。启动科技资金管理、考试招生、户籍、机关事业单位养老保险制度等改革。

  We have made solid progress in key reforms. We formulated and implemented a coordinated plan for deepening the reform of the fiscal and tax: systems. Important progress was made in the reform of the budgetary management and tax systems. The number of items receiving special transfer payments was over one third less than that of the previous year, and the proportion of transfer payments for general purposes was increased. Management of local government debt was strengthened. The floating ranges of interest rates on deposits and exchange rates were expanded. New steps were taken in the trials to establish private banks. The Shanghai-Hong Kong Stock Connect was launched on a trial basis. The scope for using foreign exchange reserves and insurance funds was broadened. Price reforms in energy, transport, environmental protection, and communications were accelerated. We launched reforms to the system for managing research and development funding, the school examination andenrollment systems, the household registration system, and the pension system for employees of Party and government offices and public institutions.

  继续把简政放权、放管结合作为改革的重头戏。国务院各部门全年取消和下放 246 项行政审批事项,取消评比达标表彰项目29 项、职业资格许可和认定事项 149 项,再次修订投资项目核准目录,大幅缩减核准范围。着力改革商事制度,新登记注册市场主体达到 1293 万户,其中新登记注册企业增长 45. 9 % 形成新的创业热潮。经济增速放缓,新增就业不降反增,显示了改革的巨大威力和市场的无限潜力。

  We have continued to give the central stage in reform to streamlining administration arid delegating more powers to lower-level governments and to society in general while improving regulation. Over the course of the year, departments under the State Council cancelled the requirement of or delegated the power for review on 246 items. We cancelled 29 performance evaluations, inspections on the meeting of standards, and commendations, and 149 verifications and approvals of vocational qualifications. We again revised and significantly shortened the list of investment projects requiring government review. We channeled great effort into the reform of the business system. The number of newly registered market entities reached 12.93 million, with that of enterprises increasing by 45.9%, creating a fresh surge of entrepreneurial activity. While economic growth slowed down, more jobs were created, which fully demonstrates both the tremendous power of reform and the endless potential of the market.

  以开放促改革促发展。扩展上海自由贸易试验区范围,新设广东、天津、福建自由贸易试验区。稳定出口,增加进口,出口占国际市场份额继续提升。实际使用外商直接投资 1196 亿美元,居世界首位。对外直接投资 1029 亿美元,与利用外资并驾齐驱。中国与冰岛、瑞士自贸区启动实施,中韩、中澳自贸区完成实质性谈判。铁路、电力、油气、通信等领域对外合作取得重要成果,中国装备正大步走向世界。

  We drew on further opening up to boost reform and development. We expanded the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone and established similar zones in Guangdong, Tianjin, and Fujian. We worked to keep exports stable and increase imports, and China's international market share in exports continued to increase. Foreign direct investment actually made in China reached $119.6 billion, making the country the world's top destination for foreign direct investment. China's outward foreign direct investment reached $102.9 billion, meaning that outward investment has come to draw even with inward investment. China's free trade zone arrangements with Iceland and Switzerland were officially launched, and China completed substantive talks on free trade zones with the Republic of Korea and Australia. Major progress was made in cooperation with other countries in fields such as railways, electric power, oil, natural gas, and communications. Chinese equipment is making significant strides into the international market.


  Third, we stepped up structural adjustments to make China’s development more sustainable.

  We took proactive steps to address prominent structural problems and supported the development of certain areas while containing the development of others, focusing on urgently needed initiatives that promise long-term benefits. Our goal herein has been to lay a firm foundation for economic and social development


  Work was done to strengthen the foundations of agriculture. We increased policy support to strengthen agriculture, benefit farmers, and raise rural living standards. Grain output increased for the 11th consecutive year, and the income of rural residents grew faster than that of urban residents for the fifth year running. Overall agricultural production capacity was steadily improved. Agricultural science and technology continued to be strengthened, and agriculture was further mechanized. The pace of progress in the construction of major water conservancy projects was stepped up. Farmland under water-saving irrigation was increased by 2.23 million hectares. An additional 230,000 kilometers of roads were built of upgraded in rural areas. We launched a new round of efforts to return more marginal farmland to forest or grassland. The work to determine, register, and certify contracted rural land-use rights proceeded as planned, and new types of agricultural businesses registered faster growth.

  大力调整产业结构。着力培育新的增长点,促进服务业加快发展,支持发展移动互联网、集成电路、高端装备制造、新能源汽车等战略性新兴产业,互联网金融异军突起,电子商务、物流快递等新业态快速成长,众多"创客"脱颖而出,文化创意产业蓬勃发展。同时,继续化解过剩产能,钢铁、水泥等 15 个重点行业淘汰落后产能年度任务如期完成。加强雾噩治理,淘汰黄标车和老旧车指标超额完成。

  We channeled great energy into making adjustments in the structure of industry. We focused on fostering new areas of growth by encouraging the service sector to develop more quickly, and supporting the development of strategic emerging industries, including the mobile Internet industry, the integrated circuits industry, high-end equipment manufacturing, and the new-energy vehicles industry. Internet-based finance rose swiftly to prominence. B-commerce, logistics, express delivery services and other emerging businesses developed rapidly. We have seen creators coming thick and fast, and the cultural and creative industries have been developing with great vitality. At the same time, we continued to cut overcapacity. Fifteen key industries including steel and cement achieved their task for the year of shutting down outdated production facilities as scheduled. We stepped up efforts to prevent and control smog and surpassed this year's targets for removing high-emission and old vehicles from the roads.

  推进基础设施建设和区域协调发展。京津冀协同发展、长江经济带建设取得重要进展。新建铁路投产里程 8427 公里,高速铁路运营里程达1. 6 万公里,占世界的 60% 以上。高速公路通车里程达 11. 2 万公里,水路、民航、管道建设进一步加强。农网改造稳步进行。宽带用户超过 7. 8亿户。经过多年努力,南水北调中线一期工程正式通水,惠及沿线亿万群众。

  Progress was made in developing infrastructure and promoting coordinated development among regions. Significant progress was made in coordinated development for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region and in building the Yangtze Economic Belt. An additional 8,427 kilometers of railway lines were put into operation. The length of high-speed railways that are up and running in China reached 16,000 kilometers, accounting for more than 60% of the world's total. The length of the country's expressways open to traffic grew to total 112,000 kilometers. Waterways, civil aviation, and pipelines were all further developed. Steady progress was made in upgrading rural power grids. The number of broadband Internet users exceeded 780 million. Thanks to many years of hard work, the first phase of the middle route of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project was officially put into operation, benefiting millions of people along the route.


  We implemented the strategy of innovation-driven development. We worked to commercialize research and development deliverables, expanded the scope of trial policies from the Zhongguancun National Innovation Demonstration Zone, and ensured that scientific and technological resources were openly shared. All this has been helping to constantly unleash the creativity of scientists and engineers. Breakthroughs have been made in major research projects such as supercomputing, the lunar exploration program, and satellite applications, and a regional jet developed and produced in China has been successfully put into service.


  Fourth, we worked on developing a tightly woven and sturdy safety net to secure and improve living standards.


  We continued to put people first, sustaining increases to spending in areas that are important to improving standards of living. We have been working to build up a basic safety net, ensure there is a cushion in place for those most in need, and make relevant institutional arrangements. Despite a slowdown in the growth of government revenue and increased pressure on expenditures, more than 70% of last year's government budget was spent on ensuring standards of living.

  加强就业和社会保障。完善就业促进政策,推出创业引领计划,高校毕业生就业稳中有升。统一城乡居民基本养老保险制度,企业退休人员基本养老金水平又提高10%。新开工保障性安居工程 740万套,基本建成511万套。全面建立临时救助制度,城乡低保标准分别提高9.97%和14.1%,残疾军人、烈属和老复员军人等优抚对象抚恤和生活补助标准提高20%以上。

  We worked to strengthen employment and social security. We improved the policies to stimulate employment and initiated the scheme to help college students and graduates to start businesses, ensuring a steady increase in the employment of college graduates. We unified the basic pension systems for rural residents and non-working urban residents and increased basic pension benefits for enterprise retirees by a further 10%. Construction began on 7.4 million government-subsidized housing units, and 5.11 million such units were basically completed. We established a nationwide temporary-assistance system, increased subsistence allowances by 9.97% for urban residents and 14.1% for rural residents, and increased subsidies and living allowances by more than 20% for disabled military personnel, families of revolutionary martyrs, and old-age veterans.

  继续促进教育公平。加强贫困地区义务教育薄弱学校建设,提高家庭经济困难学生资助水平,国家助学贷款资助标准大幅上调。中等职业学校免学费补助政策扩大到三年。实行义务教育免试就近入学政策,28 个省份实现了农民工随迁子女在流入地参加高考。贫困地区农村学生上重点高校人数连续两年增长 10%以上。经过努力,全国财政性教育经费支出占国内生产总值比例超过 4%。

  We continued to make progress in securing fair access to education. We strengthened efforts to improve badly built and poorly operated schools providing compulsory education in poor areas, increased financial aid to students from poor families, and significantly increased the amount available per eligible student for national study assistance loans. The scheme to subsidize the waiving of tuition fees at schools providing secondary vocational education was extended to cover three years of study. Policies have been introduced to ensure that children can receive compulsory education at schools close to where they live without having to take entrance exams, and 28 provincial-level administrative areas began to allow children who live with their migrant worker parents to take the college entrance exam in their cities of residence. The number of students from poor rural areas who were newly enrolled in key colleges and universities increased by more than 10% for the second year running. Through hard work, government spending on education has come to reach over 4% of GDP.

  深入推进医药卫生改革发展。城乡居民大病保险试点扩大到所有省份,疾病应急救助制度基本建立,全民医保覆盖面超过95%。基层医疗卫生机构综合改革深化,县乡村服务网络逐步完善。公立医院改革试点县市达到 1300 多个。

  We intensified efforts to reform and develop medical and health care. Trials of serious illness insurance for rural and non-working urban residents were extended to all provincial-level administrative areas, the framework of the system for providing assistance for emergency medical treatment was established, and over 95% of the whole population was covered by medical insurance. The comprehensive reform of community medical and healthcare centers was deepened, and the networks of medical and healthcare services for counties, townships, and villages have been steadily improved. The number of counties and county-level cities carrying out trial public hospital reforms reached over 1,300.


  We worked actively to develop the cultural sector. Progress was made in developing major cultural initiatives designed to benefit the public. Great efforts were made to extend radio and television coverage not only to all villages but to all rural homes. Efforts were made to ensure the production of more high-quality literary and artistic works, and the modern culture market was improved. Popular fitness activities are flourishing nationwide, and the 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing were a great success.


  Fifth, we have been developing new forms of social governance, and promoting social harmony and stability.

  We responded effectively to natural disasters and emergencies, worked to resolve social problems in a systematic way, and strengthened mechanisms to address problems at the source. These efforts have protected lives and ensured public order.


  Last year, when strong earthquakes hit in areas including Ludian and Jinggu counties in Yunnan Province, we launched timely and efficient relief efforts and made smooth progress in post-earthquake recovery and reconstruction. We worked proactively to assist Africa in the fight against Ebola, and effectively prevented the virus from entering China. We intensified efforts to ensure workplace safety and achieved reductions in the number of total accidents, serious and major accidents, and accidents in key industries. Serious efforts were made to prevent food contamination, and on the whole the situation was kept stable in food and medicine safety.

  我们大力推进依法行政,国务院提请全国人大常委会制定修订食品安全法等法律 15 件,制定修订企业信息公示暂行条例等行政法规 38件。政务公开深入推进,政府重大决策和政策以多种形式向社会广泛征求意见。完成第三次全国经济普查。改革信访工作制度。法律援助范围从低保群体扩大到低收入群体。加强城乡社区建设,行业协会商会等四类社会组织实现直接登记。严厉打击各类犯罪活动,强化社会治安综合治理,维护了国家安全和公共安全。

  In a major push to advance law-based government administration, the State Council submitted proposals to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC) on enacting or revising 15 laws including the Food Safety Law, and formulated or revised 38 sets of administrative regulations including the Provisional Regulations on Enterprise Information Disclosure. We took thorough steps to increase transparency in government operations, and used multiple means to widely solicit comments from the public on major government decisions and policies. The third national economic census was completed. We reformed the system for handling public complaints made in the form of letters or visits. Legal aid was expanded to cover not only people living on subsistence allowances but also those on low incomes. We strengthened efforts in both urban and rural community building, and made direct registration a reality for four types of social organizations, including industry associations and chambers of commerce. We cracked down on crime, strengthened efforts in the comprehensive maintenance of law and order, and effectively safeguarded national security and public safety.


  We have been strictly putting into practice the CPC Central Committee's eight-point decision on improving Party and government conduct and making persistent efforts to fight formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism, and extravagance. We have been rigorously implementing the State Council's three-point decision on curbing government spending, and have effectively controlled the construction of new government buildings, the staffing of government bodies and public institutions, and the spending on official overseas visits, official vehicles, and official hospitality. Administrative supervision and auditing oversight have been intensified; efforts have been stepped up to improve Party conduct, build a clean government, and fight corruption; and we have investigated and prosecuted violations of the law and discipline, bringing many offenders to justice.


  We have taken strong steps to ensure the implementation of major policies and measures, carrying out inspections, introducing third-party evaluations and public appraisals, and establishing permanent mechanisms. These efforts have gone a long way in advancing all of our work.

  一年来,外交工作成果丰硕。习近平主席等国家领导人出访多国,出席二十国集团领导人峰会、金砖国家领导人会晤、上海合作组织峰会、东亚合作领导人系列会议、亚欧首脑会议、达沃斯论坛等重大活动。成功举办亚太经合组织第二十二次领导人非正式会议、亚信会议第四次峰会、博主主亚洲论坛。积极参与多边机制建立和国际规则制定。大国外交稳中有进,周边外交呈现新局面,同发展中国家合作取得新进展,经济外交成果显著。推进丝绸之路经济带和 21 世纪海上丝绸之路建设,筹建亚洲基础设施投资银行,设立丝路基金。我们与各国的交往合作越来越紧密,中国在国际舞台上负责任大国形象日益彰显。

  Over the past year, Chinese diplomacy has been fruitful. President Xi Jinping and other state leaders visited many countries and attended major international events, including the G20 Leaders Summit, the BRICS Leaders Meeting, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization Summit, the East Asian leaders' meetings on cooperation, the Asia-Europe Meeting, the Annual Meeting of the New Champions 2014 in Tianjin, and the World Economic Forum annual meeting 2015 in Davos4 Switzerland. China hosted the 22nd APEC Economic Leaders Meeting, the Fourth Summit of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence Building Measures in Asia, and the Boao Forum for Asia. China has been participating actively in establishing multilateral mechanisms and writing international rules. We have made steady progress in developing relations with other major countries, entered a new phase in neighborhood diplomacy, and made new headway in our cooperation with other developing countries. Notable progress has been made in conducting economic diplomacy. Progress has been made in pursuing the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road initiatives; preparations have been made for establishing the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, and the Silk Road Fund has been set up. China is engaging in more exchanges and cooperation with other countries, and is increasingly recognized as a major responsible country on the international stage.


  Fellow Deputies,


  We owe the achievements of the past year to the overall planning and sound policymaking of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as General Secretary and to the concerted and unremitting efforts of all members of the Party and the armed forces, and all of China's people. On behalf of the State Council, I wish to express our sincere gratitude to the people of all our ethnic groups, and to the non-CPC parties, people's organizations, and people from all sectors of society. We would like to express our heartfelt appreciation to our compatriots in the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions and in Taiwan, and to Chinese nationals overseas. We also wish to express true gratitude to the governments, international organizations, and friends from all over the world who show understanding for arid support China in its endeavor to modernize.


  While recognizing our achievements, we must also be mindful of the difficulties and challenges on the road ahead:

  ■ Growth in investment is sluggish; the number of new areas of strong consumer activity is limited; there is no sign the international market is about to significantly pick up; maintaining stable growth is becoming more difficult, and there are still latent risks in some areas.

  ■ The prices of manufactured products are continuing to fall; the costs of factors of production are on the rise; small and micro businesses are finding it difficult and costly to obtain financing; and the going is tough for some enterprises.

  ■ China's economic growth model remains inefficient; our capacity for innovation is insufficient; overcapacity is a pronounced problem, and the foundation of agriculture is weak.

  ■ There are still many problems of public concern in medical services, elderly care, housing, transport, education, incom

  e distribution, food safety, and law and order. Environmental pollution is serious in some localities, and major accidents in the workplace are not uncommon.

  ■ There is still much to be improved in the work of the government, with some policies and measures not being satisfactorily implemented. A small number of government employees behave irresponsibly; shocking cases of corruption still exist; and some government officials are neglectful of their duties, holding onto their jobs while failing to fulfill their responsibilities.

  We must face these problems head on. In times of peace one must be alert to danger, and in times of stability one must be mindful of the potential for chaos. We must be ready to bear the weight of responsibility, do justice to our historic mission, and live up to the great trust the people place in us.

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